Aug 24, 2016 · 1. Introduction. A hydrogel is a three-dimensional (3D) network of hydrophilic polymers that can swell in water and hold a large amount of water while maintaining the structure due to chemical or physical cross-linking of individual polymer chains.Apr 01, 2022 · 3. Physio-chemical properties of biosurfactants. Synthetic surfactants and biosurfactants share several properties, such as a reduction in surface tension, foaming capacity, emulsification, stabilizing ability, solubility, and detergency , , .However, biosurfactants have been shown to either outperform or possess additional properties that make them more attractive …If the sum of high and low temperature numbers is more than 90, it will be polymer modified bitumen, and if it is less than 90, it will be unmodified polymer bitumen. As an example, a PG is considered the sum is 98. Another example, a PG is an unmodified binder.